Murshid Kuli Khan
Murshid Quli khan was appointed as Bengal’s diwan by Aurangzeb as naib subedar and later as subedar in 1717 by Farukh Siyar.He was also granted the governorship of Orissa b.y the Emperor Farukh Siyar in 1719.The capital was shifted from Dacca to Murshidabad.He gradually assumed autonomy though he continued to pay tribute to Mughal Emperor.
He carried out reorganization of the finances through transfer of large parts of jagir lands into khalisa lands.He introduced the system of revenue farming.
He granted Takkavi loans to peasants for personal use,improved agriculture and for paying land revenues in times of famines. He reorganized administration giving equal opportunities of employment to Muslims and Hindus.
His policy of appointing local Hindu zamindars and moneylenders as revenue farmers led to the rise and growth of a new landed aristocracy in Bengal.
He gave impetus to the expansion of trade and commerce by encouraging Indian and foreign merchants providing security to them on roads and rivers checking private trade by officials.
He maintained strict control over the activities of foreign trading companies ;preventing the servants of East India Company from abusing the privileges granted to the company by the Mughal farmans of 1691 and 1717. He established law and order in the province by suppressing the rebellious zamindars.
Treaty of Alinagar (1757)
The treaty comprised:
A list of demands made by the Company
An agreement affirming to return to status quo
A number of farmans and dastaks issued by the nawab
As long as nawab shall observe his agreement,English will continue to support him.
All the trade privileges held earlier by the Company stood confirmed.Additionally the English were authorized to fortify Calcutta against possible French attack and issue their own coins.
Battle of Plassey (23 June 1757)
The treaty was violated by conquest of Chandannagore by the British in 1757.Siraj ud –Dhaula protested by offering protection to the French. The British decided to remove him through conspiracy. The battle of Plassey took place on June 23 ,1757.This battle saw the treachery of Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh,bravery of small force and desertation of Nawab’s army.Siraj-ud –Dhaula was captured and executed by son of Mir Jafar.
Mir Jafar (1757-60)
Mir Jafar granted the right to free trade in Bengal and Bihar and Orissa and zamindari of the 24 parganas to the British besides paying them a sum of Rs 17.7 million as compensation.His period saw the beginning of the drain of wealth from India to Britain.He tried to replace the English with the Dutch but the Dutch were defeated by the English at Bedara in 1759.
Mir Qasim (1760-63)
Mir Qasim granted the zamindari of Burdwan,Midnapore and Chittagong to the British officials .he also paid them Rs 2.9 million.He introduced several revenue and military reforms to strengthen his position.His period saw the beginning of the conflict between the Nawab and the British for sovereign power.He transferred his capital from Murshidabad to Mongher.He stopped the misuse of the dastaks or free passes allowed to the company and abolished all duties on internal trade against British.
Battle of Bauxr
Mir Qasim fought against the British along with three allies – Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh and Shah Alam II.This battle led to their defeat by the British forces under Major Hector Munro.
Nizam ul Mulk Asaf Jan(1724-48)
His first term as the viceroy of the Deccan was between 1713 and 1715.He was given titles of Khan-i-Dauran and later Nizam-ul-Mulk.His second term as the viceroy of Deccan fell between 1720 and 1722.His appointment as wazir of the Mughal empire by Muhammad Shah resulted in his march to the Deccan without waiting for the Emperor’s permission.
He founded the state of Hyderabad as the central Mughal authority was unable to stop him or punish him.He was given viceroyalty of the Deccan and title of Asaf Jah by the emperor though he continued to recognize the emperor as his sovereign.
The reforms introduced by the Nizam include the establishment of peace and security by suppressing all the rebel nobles and maintaining law and order in the region.He made efforts to stop the plundering of the Marathas and revived the agriculture and industry by introducing reforms and incentives.
British Relations with Nizams
British started interfering in the affairs of Hyderabad when they started favoring Nasir Jung against Muzaffar Jung. British signed Treaty of Masulipatnam in 1759 with Salabat Jung.
British signed Treaty of Hyderabad in 1766 in which they obtained the five Northern Circars( Ellur,Siccacole,Rajmundry,Mustafanagar and Murtzanagar) from Nizam in return for military assistance. The treaty was renewed in 1768.
Nizam maintained neutrality in the second Mysore wars and cooperated with British in subsequent Mysore wars with British against Tipu Sultan. British under Lord Wellesley signed Subsidiary Alliance with Nizam under which he surrendered all the territories that he got after III and IV Mysore Wars to the British for the maintenance of the subsidiary force in Hyderabad.
In 1853 Nizam was forced by Lord Dalhousie to surrender Berar.Nizam cooperated with British during 1857 first war of independence.
Shuja-ud-Dhaula ascended the throne of Awadh as well as wazirship of Mughal Empire in 1754.He had fought against British in Battle of Buxar in 1764 but has to concede Allahabad and Kara. He had to pay huge indemnity to the British. Under Lord Hastings he was forced to sign Treaty of Benaras in 1773.In this treaty, British got the right to station their armies in Awadh for his protection. He defeated Rohillas with the help of British and annexed Rohillakand to Awadh in 1774.
Asaf-ud-Dhaula signed Treaty of Faizabad with British in 1775.Under this treaty,they will not encourage their peasants in committing hostilities.
Nawab would not entertain Mir Qasim.
Nawab gave British authority over all the districts.
Nawab would pay 2.6 lakh per month for maintaining the British army.
Wajid Ali Shah
Lord Dalhousie annexed Awadh in 1856 and pensioned off the Nawab to Calcutta.
Haider Ali came to power in 1761 but he continued to recognize Krishna Raja as the lawful ruler of Mysore.He conquered several territories –Coorg,Malabar,Bellary,Cuddapah etc.His administrative reforms made Mysore one of the leading Indian powers.He fought against British in Ist and IInd Mysore Wars.
Tipu Sultan succeeded Haider Ali in 1785 and fought against British in III and IV Mysore wars.He brought great changes in the administrative system.He introduced modern industries by bringing foreign experts and extending state support to many industries.
He sent ambassadors to many countries for establishing foreign trade links.He introduced new system of coinage,new scales of weight and new calendar.
He tried to increase the state income by abolition of the Jagir system and reducing the hereditary possessions of the feudal chiefs. He tried to check illegal collection of taxes from the peasants.Tipu Sultan organized the infantry on the European lines and tried to built modern navy.