Hyder Ali was defeated by Maratha Peshwa Madhav Rao in 1764 and forced to sign a treaty in 1765. He surrendered him a part of his territory and also agreed to pay rupees twenty eight lakhs per annum. The Nizam of Hyderabad did not act alone but preferred to act in league with the English which resulted in the first Anglo-Mysore War.
The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-1769)
The main causes of this war were Haider’s ambition to drive the British away from the Carnatic and finally from India and the British realization of the threat posed to them by Haider. A tripartite alliance was formed against Haider by the British, the Nizam and the Marathas. Haider’s success in breaking the alliance and declaration of war on the British. The war ended with the defeat of British. The panic-stricken Madras government concluded the humiliating Treaty of Madras in 1769 on the basis of mutual restitution of each other’s territories and a defensive alliance between the two parties committing the English to help Hyder Ali in case he was attacked by another power.
Treaty of Madras
It was signed by Haider Ali and the allies consisting of the Company, the Raja of Tanjore, and the Malabar ruler. It provided that Mutual restitution of conquests takes place except for Karur and its districts which were to be retained by the Mysore ruler. In case either of the parties was attacked the other would rally to its assistance. All the captured employees of the Madras government were to be released by Haider Ali The trade privileges.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784)
The treaty of 1769 between Hyder Ali and the English company proved more in the nature of a truce and Hyder Ali accused the company of not observing the terms of the defensive treaty by refusing to help him when the Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771. Haider found the French more helpful than the English. Further in 1778 English in India seized the French settlements including Mahe a port which was very crucial for Haider Ali for the entry of supplies. Haider Ali tried to take Mahe port but in vain. He arranged a joint front with the Nizam and the Marathas against the common enemy -the English East India Company. The war lasted from 1780-1784. But he died in 1782 and was succeeded by his son Tipu Sultan.
Tipu continued the war for another year but absolute success eluded both the sides. Tired of war the two sides concluded peace Treaty of Mangalore. By this Treaty it was decided that English would return Srirangapatnam to Tipu and Tipu would handover Fort of Badnur to English.
Treaty of Mangalore
According to the Treaty:
The two parties were not to assist each other’s enemies directly or indirectly nor make war on each other’s allies.
The trade privileges granted to the company by Haider Ali in 1770 were to be restored although no additional benefits would accrue.
Both sides agreed to a mutual restoration of possessions (barring the forts of Amboorgur and Satgur) and Tipu undertook not to make any claims on the Carnatic in future.
Tipu agreed to release all prisoners of war.
Tipu was to restore the factory and privileges possessed by the Company at Calicut until 1779.
The Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792)
War between Tipu Sultan and British began in 1789 and ended in Tipu’s defeat in 1792. Even though Tipu fought with exemplary bravery, Lord Cornwallis the Governor General had succeeded through shrewd diplomacy in isolating him by wining over the Marathas, the Nizam and the rulers of Travancore and Coorg. This war again revealed that the Indian powers were short-sighted enough to aid the foreigner against another Indian power for the sake of temporary advantages. The Third Mysore War came to an end by the Treaty of Srirangapatnam in March 1792.
This treaty resulted in the surrender of nearly half of Mysore territory to the British. The British acquired Baramahal, Dindigul and Malabar while the Marathas got territory on the Tungabhadra side and the Nizam acquired territories from the Krishna to beyond the Pennar. Tipu also had to pay a war indemnity of over three crores of rupees.
Treaty of Mangalore Seringapatam
It was signed by Tipu on the one hand and the English and their allies (Nizam and the Peshwa) on the other. The Treaty stipulated that:
The earlier treaties between the English and the rulers of Mysore stood confirmed.
Tipu was to cede half his territories where where to be shared among the three allies.
Tipu was to make immediate payment of Rs 1.6 crore out of the total indemnity agreed upon (Rs 3.6 crore) while the remainder (2 crore) was to be given in three instalments.
Tipu was also to order the release of all prisoners of war.
Pending fulfilment of these terms two of his sons were to be detained as British hostages.
In terms of territory, the Nizam obtained the lion’s share while the Marathas also extended their boundary to the Tungabhadra and the Krishna. The English secured large chunks on the Malabar Coast from the north of Cannaore to the south of the Ponanni River with Coorg as its defensive hinterland. In addition they obtained the Baramahal district as well as Dindigul.
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)
With his defeat in the third Anglo-Mysore war, Tipu was burning with revenge. He wanted to get back his territory and to achieve that objective he carried on negotiations with the French and Zaman Shah of Kabul. Tipu wanted his allies to expel the English. Lord Wellesley after making Subsidiary Alliance with the Nizam asked Tipu Sultan to accept the same but he refused. Mysore was attacked from two sides. The main army under General Harris supported by Nizam’s subsidiary force under Arthur Wellesley attacked Mysore from the east while another army advanced from Bombay.
Tipu was at first defeated by the Bombay army and was later on defeated by the General Harris at Mallavalli. Tipu died fighting bravely. The members of his family were interned at Vellore. A boy of the earlier Mysore royal family was installed on the Gaddi of Mysore and a Subsidiary Alliance was imposed. Thus the fourth Mysore War destroyed the state of Mysore which was ruled by Haider Ali 33 years back.
Gandhiji’s contribution to nationalist movement
The nationalist movement grew into a wide spread mass anti-imperialist movement at the end of the First World War. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi came into prominence at this time and became the undisputed leader of the nationalist movement. Powerful mass movements were launched under his leadership. These involved defiance of laws, peaceful demonstrations, boycott of educational institutions, boycott of courts, boycott of educational institutions, picketing of shops selling liquor and foreign goods, nonpayment of taxes and the closing of vital business. These non-violent but revolutionary methods influenced millions of people belonging to all sections of society and infused in them bravery and self-confidence. Millions now braved the repression resorted by the govt boldly courted imprisonment and faced lathicharges and firings.Gandhiji lived the simple life of an ascetic and talked to the people in a language they could understand. He came to be known to the people as Mahatma Gandhi.
Gandhiji made social report a part of the programme of the nationalist movement. His greatest achievement in the field of social reform was the campaign against inhuman institution of untouchability which had degraded millions of Indians. His other achievement was in the field of cottage industries. He saw in the charkha, the spinning wheel, the salvation of the village people and its promotion became part of the congress programme.In addition to infusing people with the spirit of nationalism it provided employment to millions and created a large group of people who were ready to throw themselves into the struggle and court imprisonment. The charkha became so important that it eventually became a part of the flag of the Indian National Congress. Gandhiji devoted himself to the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity .He regarded communalism as anti-national and inhuman. Under his leadership the unity of the nationalist movement was secured and the people worked hard for independence.